Here you can find answers to many Frequently Asked Questions.
Sesquiterpene lactones (SQLs) are the active components of A. Montana flowers and are found in the base of the plant. When applied topically (to the skin) at the concentration of 15%, the SQLs will penetrate the skin barrier effectively1. SQLs target the inflammatory cascade thereby causing an anti-inflammatory effect2, 3, 4. It should be noted that though RUB·A535™ is most commonly known for its effective counterirritant products, RUB·A535™ Arnica is not a counterirritant. Arnica montana is considered a traditional herbal medicine.
1. Wagner, S., Suter, A., & Merfort, I. (2004). Skin penetration studies of Arnica preparations and of their sesquiterpene lactones. Planta Medica, 70, 897-903. DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-832613.
2. Knuesel, O. & Weber, M. (2002). Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: An open, multicenter clinical trial. Advances in Therapy, 19(5): 209-218.
3. Ekenas, C., Zebrowska, A., Schuler, B., Vrede, T., Andreasen, K., Backlund, A., Merfort, I. & Bohlin, L. (2008). Screening for anti-inflammatory activity of 12 Arnica (Asteraceae) species assessed by inhibition of NF-kB and release of human neutrophil elastase. Planta Medica, 74, 1789-1794. DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1088320.
4. Klaas, C. A., Wagner, G., Laufer, S., Sosa, S., Della Loggia, R., Bomme, U., Pahl, H. L., & Merfort, I. (2002). Studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytopharmaceuticals prepared from Arnica flowers. Planta Medica, 68, 385-391.